East Coast Fever (ECF) is a tick-borne blood parasite of cattle in eastern, central and southern Africa. with more than 38% of the African total bovine population affected and an estimated mortality of 1.1 millions cattle per year, ECF remains probably the most important cattle disease in terms of economic losses in affected countries. In Rwanda, the importance of ECF must be viewed in the light of recent fundamental changes in agricultural production policy to meet the Millenium Development Goals (MDG). A specific program of providing «one cow to every poor family» was the centrepiece of the Economic Development and Poverty reduction Strategy (EDPRS). A number of improved cattle breeds have been acquired through national budget or donor assistance. However, improved stocks are highly susceptible to tick-borne diseases and the sustainability of the program is subjected to effective control of these pathogens, particularly ECF. Climatic conditions are ideal for year round presence of ticks in most of Rwanda. A comprehensive epidemiological assessment prevailing in various agro-ecological regions of the country is a pre-requisite for any formulation of suitable control measures.